All information Copyright, Cranfield University © 2018

Citation: To use information from this web resource in your work, please cite this as follows:
Cranfield University 2018. The Soils Guide. Available: www.landis.org.uk. Cranfield University, UK. Last accessed 13/12/2018

0551g NEWPORT 4

« 0551f Newport 3 Associations Soilsguide Home 0581a NORDRACH »

Soil and site characteristics

Deep well drained sandy soils. Some very acid soils with bleached subsurface horizon especially under heath or in woodland. Risk of wind erosion.

Geology

Glaciofluvial drift

Cropping and Land Use

Barley, other cereals and sugar beet some carrots and potatoes; some coniferous woodland and lowland heath habitats.

Component soil series

Subgroup Series name Percentage WRB 2006 link
5.51 NEWPORT 65% Eutric Lamellic Arenosols
6.31 REDLODGE 20% Albic Podzols

Covers 746 km2 in England and Wales

Soilscapes Classification

10
Freely draining slightly acid sandy soils

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0551g NEWPORT 4

Detailed Description

This association of deep well drained, often stony sandy soils, some of which are very acid, covers 97 km² in the Midlands, though it is much more extensive in Norfolk and Suffolk. It occurs mainly in glaciofluvial deposits either on relatively low river terraces or on gently sloping hilltops and ridges. The main soils are typical brown sands of the Newport series and humo-ferric podzols of the Redlodge series. Newport soils are brown and slightly stony with loose sandy subsoils but topsoil textures are often sandy loam. The Redlodge series is slightly or moderately stony with a dark, brittle, slightly cemented humus enriched subsurface horizon which underlies a paler leached layer. There are also small areas of Ebstree series (Hollis 1978) which have thin clay-rich laminations in the subsoil and coarse loamy Wick soils. The association is found in three main districts; in the Stour valley north of Kidderminster, south-west of Macclesfield, and south of Tamworth. There is also a small area south of Fens Moss in Shropshire. Near Macclesfield the land is undulating with small peat filled hollows. Ebstree and Brownrigg series are locally extensive with Adventurers' and Ollerton series in the hollows. On stony Wolstonian drift in the Stour valley and near Tamworth, Wick, Escrick, Aldridge (Clayden and Hollis 1984) and Ebstree series are common subsidiary soils. Brownrigg and Adventurers' series are also present.

The association covers more than 500 km² in Eastern England chiefly on the Cromer Ridge, in the Wensum valley west of Norwich, in west Norfolk between King's Lynn and Hunstanton, in the Breckland and on the Suffolk coast. Other areas occur near Fakenham and in the Waveney valley. The flat crest of the Cromer Ridge rises to 100 m O.D. and overlooks steep north-facing slopes. There are also occasional moderately steep slopes in west Norfolk and the Wensum valley, whilst hummocky ground is found on low-lying sites in Breckland or near the Fens. Sandy loam topsoils are common in Newport soils in north-east Norfolk and near Ipswich. Here aeolian silt has been mixed with the upper horizons. Where the contribution of aeolian material is greater, Hall and Wick series occur, the latter formerly described as Hall series. Newport soils in north-west Norfolk, on the Suffolk coast and especially in Breckland are commonly sandy throughout. Redlodge soils are present in places, often where the deposits are most stony, and in Suffolk, north of Leiston, both Newport and Redlodge soils are stony. The stones are usually flints but include Carstone fragments in west Norfolk. Ebstree soils with their characteristic clay laminations occur sporadically, especially in the distal parts of the glaciofluvial gravels. They are common in east Suffolk together with Euston series and Wighill series where the sandy land abuts the chalky till.


Soil Water Regime

Newport, Redlodge and most of the associated soils are well drained (Wetness Class I) and have permeable surface and subsurface horizons. The soils in and around the enclosed peat hollows, the Adventurers' and Ollerton series are affected by groundwater. Overall winter rainwater is readily absorbed.

Cropping and Land Use

Mixed farming predominates with cereals, sugar beet and grass. Most grass growth occurs in spring and early summer when the soils are moist but total yields are small because the soils dry out quickly; the association is very droughty for grass but moderately droughty for cereals in a normal year. Trafficability, however, is good and poaching risk small so outwintering is possible. Normally the period for autumn work is adequate but there are fewer opportunities for cultivation in spring. In practice these soils can be worked within one or two rain-free days even in winter, the critical factor being the local extent and wetness of the hollows. In dry years seedbeds can be damaged by wind erosion. The land is naturally acid and nutrients are rapidly leached. Frequent applications of lime and nitrogen are therefore necessary and deficiencies of copper and manganese are fairly common.

In Eastern England Copper deficiency can occur on reclaimed heath. In dry years there is a risk of seedbed destruction by windblow. Crop yields are generally low and vary considerably with the season. Irrigation is needed for the more valuable crops to be profitable. Barley, both autumn and spring sown, is the most extensive cereal, but wheat and rye are also grown. There are considerable areas of sugar beet, whilst potatoes, especially second earlies, are grown on the Suffolk coast. Carrots are the most common field vegetables but French beans and peas are grown. There are patches of heath in most districts, with some scrub. There are Forestry Commission and other woodlands, especially between Southwold and Woodbridge in Suffolk. Here the original plantings at Rendlesham and Tunstall Forests are 50 years old and are now mature. The woodland is mainly coniferous of which about half is Scots Pine and half Corsican pine. The latter is preferred for replanting as it yields better than Scots Pine which is now only planted in difficult sites such as frost hollows. The pathogenic fungus Fomes annosus commonly infects trees grown on previously cultivated land.

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0551g NEWPORT 4

Typical Landscapes

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All information Copyright, Cranfield University © 2018

Citation: To use information from this web resource in your work, please cite this as follows:
Cranfield University 2018. The Soils Guide. Available: www.landis.org.uk. Cranfield University, UK. Last accessed 13/12/2018