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Cranfield University 2021. The Soils Guide. Available: Cranfield University, UK. Last accessed 07/12/2021

0572s Bishampton 1

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Soil and site characteristics

Deep fine loamy soils with slowly permeable subsoils and slight seasonal waterlogging associated with well drained fine and coarse loamy soils in an undulating landscape. Some slowly permeable seasonally waterlogged fine loamy soils.


Till and glaciofluvial drift

Cropping and Land Use

Cereals and short term grassland; stock rearing on permanent grassland in the Northern Region.

Component soil series

Subgroup Series name Percentage WRB 2006 link
5.72 BISHAMPTON 35% Endostagnic Luvisols
5.71 LUDFORD 25% Haplic Luvisols
5.41 WICK 20% Eutric Cambisols
7.11 HOLDERNESS 15% Eutric Albic Luvic Stagnosols

Covers 240 km2 in England and Wales

Soilscapes Classification

Slightly acid loamy and clayey soils with impeded drainage


0572s Bishampton 1

Detailed Description

This association consists of deep, occasionally waterlogged, slowly permeable, fine loamy soils and well drained coarse and fine loamy soils, in glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and river terrace drift. Also included are slowly permeable, seasonally waterlogged, fine loamy soils in till. The association occurs from Durham southwards through North Yorkshire and into Humberside and north Lincolnshire. Relief is irregular, often hummocky, in the north, but it becomes more subdued and gently undulating in Humberside and Lincolnshire. Altitude ranges from 60 to 137 m O.D. in Durham and from 6 to 65 m O.D. elsewhere. The most extensive soils are the Bishampton series, fine loamy stagnogleyic argillic brown earths and the Ludford series, fine loamy typical argillic brown earths, both in glaciofluvial drift. Of less importance are fine loamy Holderness series, typical stagnogley soils in till, and the loamy Wick series, typical brown earths. The soils usually form complex patterns, with Bishampton and Ludford soils on slopes and Holderness series in the hollows. Soils of the Wick series occupy the upper slopes and crests of morainic ridges. In Lincolnshire around Brocklesbury and Keelby to the west of Grimsby, the main associated soils are Burlingham, and Arrow.

This association covers 226 kmĀ², the main area being the Vale of York between Boroughbridge and Tadcaster. In Durham, other locally important series include Dunkeswick and Hallsworth, whilst in Yorkshire there are profiles of the Arrow, Brickfield, Dunkeswick and Hallsworth series. In Humberside the main associated soils are Burlingham, and Arrow series

Soil Water Regime

The soils have a generally drier regime than those in adjacent associations in glacial till, and the Bishampton soils are only occasionally seasonally waterlogged (Wetness Class II). Small areas of the Holderness series are seasonally waterlogged (Wetness Class III), whereas Ludford and Wick soils are well drained (Wetness Class I). Field drainage reduces the period when soils are at field capacity and lengthens the working period only slightly so large areas of the Bishampton association have no artificial drainage. Hollows containing the wetter Holderness soils are however usually drained, and here surface wetness is countered too by regular subsoiling.

Cropping and Land Use

Potential soil moisture deficit is greater than the profile available water for most crops even in a normal year, and droughtiness commonly affects plant growth. In Lincolnshire the association forms excellent arable land, and potatoes and oilseed rape are widely grown. In Durham and in the Vale of York there is some permanent grassland. In Holderness this is the best arable land, and potatoes and oilseed rape are commonly grown. There is intensive glasshouse production at Keyingham, reflecting earlier horticultural production on soils of the Wick and Arrow series. There is little risk of poaching and the land is suitable for direct drilling.


0572s Bishampton 1